NKÜ Papers on Social Science
Papers on Social Science
ISSN 1308–4453 (Print)
ISSN 1308–4895 (Internet)
Owner: Prof. Dr. Osman ŞİMŞEK- Rector
On Behalf of Namık Kemal University
Editor in Chief: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emrah İsmail ÇEVİK
Director of the Institute of Social Sciences
Prof. Dr. Walter ENDERS
Prof. Dr. Ensar NİŞANCI
Prof. Dr. Rasim YILMAZ
Prof. Dr. Salih Öztürk
Prof. Dr. Alpay HEKİMLER
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dilek ALTAŞ
Assoc. Prof. Durmuş Çağrı YILDIRIM
Asst. Prof. Elif KIRAN
Papers on Social Sciences is published online and in print format by Namık Kemal University Institute of Social Sciences. Published 2 times a year, it is an open-access, international, academic, peer-reviewed and periodic publication indexed by ASOS, ZDB, PROQUEST and Index Copernicus. The journal encourages interdisciplinary and comparative research, critical scholarship and a diversity of perspectives on social sciences. It serves as a forum for review and discussion based on past and present theoretical or policy-relevant studies. The Journal’s Editorial, Scientific and Advisory Boards include distinguished faculty members from different universities. Views and opinions put forward in manuscripts belong solely to the authors and do not represent the Institute of Social Sciences.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS: Contributors should note that material submitted for publication to the journal must be original, must not have already appeared in another publication and must not be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by the journal. The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of NKU Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and do not commit the Balkan Journal of Social Sciences. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of NKU Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences or the Balkan Journal of Social Sciences.
Namık Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Namık Kemal Mahallesi,Kampus Cad. No: 1 Rektörlük Binası Kat: 3 Değirmenaltı Yerleşkesi 59030 Tekirdağ/TÜRKİYE
Phone: +90-282-250 4500
Fax: +90-282-250 9932
Prof. Dr. İ. Hakkı İnan (Namık Kemal University)
Prof. Dr. Recep Tarı (Kocaeli University)
Prof. Dr. Selçuk Akçay (Afyon Kocatepe University)
Prof. Dr. Adem Kalça (Karadeniz Teknik University)
Prof. Dr. Nalan Ölmezoğulları (Uludağ University)
Prof. Dr. Sami Taban (Eskişehir Osman Gazi University)
Prof. Dr. Thomas Lopez Guzman (Cordoba University)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Todor Radev (International University College)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Petru Golban (Namık Kemal University)
Prof. Dr. Müjdat Şakar (Marmara University)
Prof. Dr. Derman Küçükaltan (Trakya University)
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yahyagil (Yeditepe University)
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Ring (TU Bergakademie Freiberg)
Prof. Dr. Carol Daugherty Rasnic (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Prof. Dr. M. Thomas Paul (University Of South Pacific)
Prof. Dr. Herbert Reginbogin (Çağ University)
Board of Referees:
Yusuf ALPER Prof. Dr. Uludağ University
Sudi APAK Prof. Dr. Beykent University
Neşe ATİK Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Hasan BOYNUKARA Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Tankut CENTEL Prof. Dr. Koç University
Toker DERELİ Prof. Dr. Işık University
Nadir DEVLET Prof. Dr. İstanbul Ticaret University
Ayten ER Prof. Dr. Gazi University
Nalan GÜREL Prof. Dr. Marmara University
İsmail Hakkı İNAN Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Abdülkadir IŞIK Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Ahmet KUBAŞ Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Alpay HEKİMLER Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Cem KILIÇ Prof. Dr. Gazi University
Derman KÜÇÜKALTAN Prof. Dr. Trakya University
Thomas LOPEZ GUZMAN Prof. Dr. Cordoba University
Ahmet MAKAL Prof. Dr. Ankara University
Ahmet SELAMOĞLU Prof. Dr. Kocaeli University
Ali Nazım SÖZER Prof. Dr. Dokuz Eylül University
Yaşar ŞENLER Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Can TUNCAY Prof. Dr. Bahçeşehir University
Devrim ULUCAN Prof. Dr. Maltepe University
Rasim YILMAZ Prof. Dr. Namık Kemal University
Levent AKIN Assoc. Prof. Ankara University
Leyla ATEŞ Assoc. Prof. Namık Kemal University
Şener BAĞ Assoc. Prof. Namık Kemal University
Süleyman BAŞTERZİ Assoc. Prof. Ankara University
Petru GOLBAN Assoc. Prof. Namık Kemal University
Aşkın KESER Assoc. Prof. Kocaeli University
Hakan ONGAN Assoc. Prof. İstanbul University
Todor RADEV Assoc. Prof. International University College
Abdülkadir ŞENKAL Assoc. Prof. Kocaeli University
Ali TİLBE Assoc. Prof. Namık Kemal University
Aykut Hamit TURAN Assoc. Prof. Sakarya University
Banu UÇKAN Assoc. Prof. Anadolu University
Sonel BOSNALI Assoc. Prof. Namık Kemal University
İrfan ATALAY Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Tatiana GOLBAN Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
İmran GÜR Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Ali GÜREL Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Ahmet MENTEŞ Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Lütfü ŞİMŞEK Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Tevfik SÜTÇÜ Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Çiğdem VATANSEVER Asst. Prof. Dr Namık Kemal University
Ahmet Zeki BULUNÇ Dr. Başkent University (Retired Ambassador)
Oscar A. POMBO Dr. Colef University
Principles of Publication:
Authors are invited to provide manuscripts in Turkish, English, French and German. Manuscripts should not exceed 30 pages including the reference list An abstract of 200 words covering the content of manuscript and five key words describing manuscript are required. Manuscripts should be written using 12 pt. Times New Roman font in Word Office. At the end of the manuscripts, authors should provide a short biographical note and correspondence details.
All tables and figures should be numbered. Notes and sources (if any) must be placed below the tables and figures in brackets. Tables and figures should be given within the text as follows: As seen in Table 3.1…..
Authors should use the APA style for references. Basic information adapted from APA website and Purdue OWL is provided below. For more information see: http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx and http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
Single Author: According to Jones (1998), “…..” (p. 199) & She stated, “…..” (Jones, 1998, p. 199)...
Two Sources by the Same Author in the Same Year: Research by Berndt (1981a) …....
Two Authors: Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports... & (Wegener & Petty, 1994)..
Three to Five Authors: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) & in subsequent citations (Kernis et al., 1993)..
A Work by Six or More Authors: Harris et al. (2001) argued... & (Harris et al., 2001)..
Unknown Author: (“Using APA,” 2001)...
Organization as an Author: According to the American Psychological Association (2000) &..
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000) Second: (MADD, 2000)..
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)..
Authors With the Same Last Name: (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)..
Citing Indirect Sources : Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102)...
Personal Communication: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001)..
Republished Work: Freud (1923/1961)...
Electronic Documents: Kenneth (2000) explained.....
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.)...
Sources Without Page Numbers: (Hall, 2001, para. 5) ..
Long Quotations: Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark...
Jones’s (1998) study found the following:..
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)..
Single Author: Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10...
Two Authors: Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048...
Three to Seven Authors: Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’ss more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204...
More Than Seven Authors: Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335...
Organization as Author: Organization of American Historians (2005)..
Unknown Author: Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster...
Two or More Works by the Same Author:
Kissinger, H. (1994)..
Kissinger, H. (2000)..
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28...
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329...
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 629-654...
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43...
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year:..
Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends.Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416...
Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643...
Basic Format for Books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location (city, two letter postal abbreviation of state without periods): Publisher...
Edited Book, No Author: Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor.New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Edited Book with an Author or Authors: Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals K.V. Kukil, (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.
A Translation: Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).
Edition Other Than the First: Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
Multivolume Work: Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner’s...
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume: Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896...
Article in Journal Paginated by Issue: Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13...
Article in a Magazine: Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31...
Article in a Newspaper: Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A...
Basic Format for Books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location (city, state with two letter postal abbreviation): Publisher...
Edited Book, No Author: Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor.New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation...
Edited Book with an Author or Authors: Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals K.V. Kukil, (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor...
A Translation: Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)...
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book: O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer...
Multivolume Work: Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner's...
An Entry in an Encyclopedia: Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica...
Work Discussed in a Secondary Source: Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608...
Dissertation, Published: Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)..
Dissertation, Unpublished: Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location...
Government Document: National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness(DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office...
Report From a Private Organization: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author...
Conference Proceedings: Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL ‘95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum...
Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000..
Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/..
Newspaper Article: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/..
Electronic Books: Davis, J. (Date of publication). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0..
Chapter/Section of a Web document or Online Book Chapter: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/..
Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries: Feminism. In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism..
Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web addres
Article Publishing Process
1. The article is delivered as 3 copies and 1 CD to the Institute of Social Sciences.
2. The article should be written in accordance with the rules of the journal.
3. The article examined by the editor is conveyed to the editor according to the subject.
4. Editor recommends the article to the referees by examining.
5. Editor may reject recommended article without sending to the referees.
6. The article founded appropriate by the editors is sent to the referees for evaluation.
7. The Referee informs the author (s) according to the reports.